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Temenos Fortress, Kanli Castelli, Crete.

Boschini, Marco. Temenos Castle. "Castel Temene" Venice "Marco Boschini Venetiano, al Serinissima Principe E Regal Collegio di Venetia" 1651
Black & white copper engraved birdseye view/ map of the castle of Temene from Marco Boschini's "Il Regno tutto di Candia"single page; verso blank.
The view/ map shows the castle of Temenos,and the village called Kanli Castelli, today known as Prophet Elijah, The village is situated at the foot of the steep two-peaked hill Rocca, at the start of Malades valley

The hill was ideal for the construction of an impregnable castle, as it dominates throughout the surrounding area. Also, there was a natural fresh water source on Rocca, which fed the fountain Fountana, located inside the fort.

Rocca is believed to be the acropolis of the ancient city Lykastos, mentioned by Homer. Much later, when Nicephorus Phocas liberated Crete from the Saracen pirates in 961AD, he first founded a fort on Rocca, in order to transfer the city of Candia there. The fort was built, but Candia was not moved, as its port was very important for the Cretans. Thus, the fortress was left alone overlooking the region and was named Temenos. Even today, the whole province is called Temenos Province.

During the Cretan War, i.e. the war between Venetian-Cretans and Turks, most battles took place in the countryside, as the Great Castle of Candia resisted for 22 years. In the wider area of Iraklion, Christians were led by the abbot of the monastery Agarathos, Athanasios Christoforos and the scholar Gerasimos Vlachos, while the Venetian general Gildasis (Gil d 'Has) attacked the Turks in several places. During one of these attacks, in 1647, Gil d' Has attacked the Turks who had occupied the fortress Temenos, slaughtering almost all of them. In 1669, after the Turks conquered Candia, the fort was donated by the Sultan to the Venetian traitor of Candia, Andrea Barozzi. The fort was then named Kanli Castelli, i.e. bloody fort, so as to commemorate the massacre of the Turkish army in 1647. However, there were references to the fort, naming it as Nefs Temenos. Dark impression, on laid paper.

Marco Boschini, [1613-78]
Venetian painter and engraver, published two important works regarding Greece.
" Il regno tutto di Candia" in 1651. (1st & only edition). Boschini started work on the survey of Crete in 1645, the year in which the Turks invaded the island. In his dedication to the work he mentions a large map of the island dated 1645 [of which only 2 copies are recorded] there is no copy of the complete work known of this date.
Boschini published the work in 1651, when the city of Candia [Iraklion] had been in a state of siege for 4 years ( it was to last 22 years): he undertook the work to illustrate the Venetian valour in the face of the Ottoman attack on Crete

"L'Archipelago."an isolario of the Greek Islands in 1658.
The outlines of the Islands in the "L'Archipelago" recall those of Bartelemeo dalli Sonnetti, whose "Isolario" Venice. 1485 was the first appearance of the islands in printed form.
Not described by Zacherakis; Blackmer /Navari:171; Blackmer/Sotheby's:37. 217 by 163mm (8½ by 6½ inches).   ref: 2121  €400

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